It primarily affects the eyes, causing closure and severe pain.
Amidst major concern over the use of pellet guns as a tool to control unruly mobs in Jammu and Kashmir, these can be replaced with newly-developed PAVA shells.
The option has been suggested by an expert committee constituted by the Union Home Ministry.
The seven-member panel early this week held a full-fledged demonstration of the shells at a test field belonging to the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) in the national capital.
After conducting the test, the panel gave its nod for use by security forces in crowd control and protest-like situations in the Kashmir Valley. These shells are to be used in place of pellet guns which has led to wide-scale criticism as their usage led to cases of severe blindness and injuries to people.
What is PAVA
PAVA stands for Pelargonic Acid Vanillyl Amide, also called Nonivamide, and is an organic compound found characteristically in natural chilli pepper. It is a chilli-based non-lethal munition, which temporarily incapacitates the targets and renders them immobile for several minutes.
On the Scoville scale (the degree to measure the power of chilli), PAVA is categorised as “above peak” meaning it will severely irritate and paralyse humans, but in a temporary fashion. It primarily affects the eyes, causing closure and severe pain.
PAVA can be categorised in the less-lethal munition category and once fired, the shells burst to temporarily stun, immobilise and paralyse the target in more effective ways than a tear gas shell or pepper sprays. It is biosafe, better than chilli grenade or tear smoke shell and can also be used in combination with stun and tear shells by security forces facing unruly protestors in place of pellet guns.
Sources privy to the working of the committee said the panel has favoured PAVA shells as an alternative to pellet guns and has recommended that the Tear Smoke Unit (TSU) of the BSF in Gwalior should be tasked with the bulk production of the shells “immediately”, with the first lot not of less than 50,000 rounds.
The committee also analysed and is understood to have recommended the supply of few other non-lethal/less-lethal munition to security forces personnel deployed for crowd control and counter-protests in the Kashmir Valley and other similar situations elsewhere.
These munitions include “dye marker grenade with irritant” which not only causes sensory trouble to the target once fired but also leaves a dye mark on them for easy identification by security personnel.
Another alternative to pellet guns include “Tear Smoke Shell with Soft Nose” which does not give serious injury to protesters when hit directly and its plastic body starts melting immediately on landing with emission of the smoke making it difficult to pick and throw away.
The committee, sources said, sought to recommend this munition as they were briefed that protesters used to pick and throw the shells fired by security forces back.
A “stun grenade”, made by the TSU of the BSF, which leads to temporary stunning of the target and makes a blinding flash for few minutes is another option studied and recommended by the committee, constituted last month.
Home Minister Rajnath Singh on Thursday had said in Srinagar that the seven-member panel, with officials from various security forces and munition experts in it, will submit its report soon and “within few days, we will give an alternative to pellet guns.”
Though PAVA is less lethal than pallet gun, it is equally effective in crowd control.
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